This article is written for Ubuntu Intrepid 8.10 and should work for Linux distributions running OpenSSH 4.9 or greater. No responsibility is taken for data loss. You know the score - take backups and try it out of a test server if possible.
First we need to create an sftp group. This group will hold users who we want to chroot.
sudo groupadd sftp
This group is used in the ssh config file so in future we can easily add more users if we want to.
Now we create a user that we want to have sftp access only. This user won’t be able to login on a standard ssh login but will be able to login using sftp to transfer files. Replace user with whatever you wish. Set the home directory (in this case /var/www/vhosts/theirsite.com) to the folder you want the user to have access to.
sudo useradd -d /var/www/vhosts/theirsite.com user
Now set a password for the user:
sudo passwd user
Change the user’s primary group to the sftp group we just created
sudo usermod -g sftp user
Then we need to set the user’s shell to /bin/false
sudo usermod -s /bin/false user
Now we need to configure OpenSSH.
sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Change the Subsystem:
#Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server Subsystem sftp internal-sftp
At the bottom of the file add
Match group sftp X11Forwarding no ChrootDirectory %h AllowTcpForwarding no ForceCommand internal-sftp
OpenSSH is sensitive to permissions so you need to make sure permissions are correct.
My vhost layout is:
theirsite.com - conf - logs - httpdocs - httpdocs - private - subdomains
The important thing here is that the folder theirsite.com must be owned by root and in the root group. Providing you want to allow write access everything else must be owned by the user and in the sftp group. You could of course set custom permissions on sub-folders as you wish.
chown user:sftp -R theirsite.com chown root:root theirsite.com
In order for jailing to work correctly every folder above the theirsite.com directory must also be owned by root and in the root group. In this case this means the following folders.
- var - www - vhosts
If these folders are not owned by root and in the root group the user login will fail.
So that’s it the user should be able to login using sftp and you should have an extensible chrooted SFTP system.
Have an update or suggestion for this article? You can edit it here and send me a pull request.
Linux and Unix watch command tutorial with examples
Tutorial on using watch, a UNIX and Linux command for executing a program periodically and showing a fullscreen output. Examples of watching a file download, a network interface come up, and showing the five most CPU intensive processes.
Build your own Vim statusline
Statuslines in Vim are not hard to create. Making your own means one less dependency in your life.
Custom Vim Bindings in tmux 2.4
tmux 2.4 made a significant change to key bindings. Here is how to support custom keybindings for versions before and after tmux 2.4