This tutorial assumes a basic knowledge of the Linux Command Line. The tutorial is written for Centos 5.1 but is applicable to other distributions, although file locations may be slightly different. The tutorial is targeted at Mac and Linux users. Windows users can find resources here. The usual disclaimer applies - no responsibility can be accepted for following this tutorial so if you do not know what you are doing please do not use this tutorial.
Shared Keys consist of a Public and Private key and allow a remote machine to authenticate a machine trying to connect it. The Private key resides on your machine and is used to identify you against the public key which resides on the machine you are trying to login to. You might think of it as a handshake. The remote machine has a description of what to expect from the handshake. It is unique to the client machine so if the handshake doesn’t match then the authentication will fail.
Shared keys have two main benefits. Firstly they allow you to turn off password authentication. Malicious bots regularly crawl the web trying to login to servers using SSH. They have large dictionaries of passwords and try to get into your server using brute force attacks. You can limit this by having a strong password and changing the port that you use to login to SSH with. You can also completely turn off password authentication if you use shared keys. Shared keys mean that no one can access your server without the shared key.
The second benefit is that if you use scripts to backup your server to another one you do not need passwords to run the scripts. The scripts can just use the shared keys to authenticate.
On my Mac I’m logged in as the user myuser. On the remote machine I also login using the user myuser. On my Mac I open Terminal (you’ll find this in Applications > Utilities). First I need to generate the keys on my machine. I run this command:
ssh-keygen -t rsa
You will be prompted for a password. If you don’t want a password just hit return. This means however that anyone who gets control of your machine will be able to login to your server. This generates a public and a private key in a hidden folder /Users/myuser/.ssh
It is possible that you won’t be able to see hidden files on your Mac by default. If this is the case you can enable this across your system by running the commands
defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles TRUE killall Finder
Now on the remote machine login as your user using your normal password. In your home directory (/home/myuser in this example) create a new folder and then a file to hold your authorized keys.
mkdir .ssh cd .ssh touch authorized_keys
Now we copy the public key to the server using the scp command. This transfers the file using SSH so is secure as no one can see it. You will be asked for your regular password.
scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub firstname.lastname@example.org:~/
Now SSH into your remote server in the standard way and in your home directory (/home/myuser in this example) you will see the file id_rsa.pub. We want to import this into our list of authorized keys so on the remote machine run this command.
cat id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
This writes the contents of the key to our authorized keys list. Once you are done we want to clean things up and set permissions on the files to ensure that no one can else can use our key. On the remote machine:
rm id_rsa.pub chmod 700 ~/.ssh chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
On the local machine
chmod 700 ~/.ssh chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
You should now be set up to access your machine with your shared key. Login as normal and if all goes to plan you will be granted access with your key. You can debug logging in by adding the verbose flag to your SSH request.
ssh -v email@example.com
Once you are sure everything is ok you can now disable password logins for addtional security. On the remote machine you will need root access and run the following commands
Find the line
Change this to no. Then hit escape : wq to save the file. Finally restart the sshd daemon:
You will now only be able to login to your server using a shared key.
Have an update or suggestion for this article? You can edit it here and send me a pull request.
Using HashiCorp Vault with LDAP
How to use HashiCorp Vault to setup an LDAP backed secret store with read-only access for users in groups and read-write access for specific users
Linux and Unix xargs command tutorial with examples
Tutorial on using xargs, a UNIX and Linux command for building and executing command lines from standard input. Examples of cutting by character, byte position, cutting based on delimiter and how to modify the output delimiter.
Copy a file in Go
How to copy a file in Go. The ioutil package does not offer a shorthand way of copying a file. Instead the os package should be used.