Linux and Unix mkdir command tutorial with examples
Tutorial on using mkdir, a UNIX and Linux command for creating directories. Examples of creating a directory, creating multiple directories, creating parent directories and setting permissions.
What is the mkdir command in UNIX? ¶
mkdir command in UNIX allows users to create directories or folders as
they are referred to in some operating systems. The
mkdir command can create
multiple directories at once and also set permissions when creating the
directory. The user running the command must have appropriate permissions on the
parent directory to create a directory or will receive a permission denied
How to create a directory ¶
To create a directory in UNIX or Linux using the
mkdir command pass the name
of directory to the
mkdir mydirectory ls mydirectory
How to create multiple directories ¶
To create multiple directories in UNIX or Linux using the
mkdir command pass
the names of directories to be created to the
mkdir command. The names of
directories should be separated by spaces.
mkdir foo bar baz ls foo bar baz
How to create parent directories ¶
To create parent directories using the
mkdir command pass the
Suppose that the directory path
foo/bar/baz is to be created. This can be
mkdir as follows.
mkdir foo cd foo mkdir bar cd bar mkdir baz tree foo foo └── bar └── baz
This may also be achieved in a single command with the
mkdir -p foo/bar/baz tree foo foo └── bar └── baz
Insufficient permissions when creating a directory ¶
mkdir command will return a permission denied error when trying to create
a directory in a parent directory that the user does not have permissions for.
mkdir /etc/foo mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/etc/foo’: Permission denied
In this instance to create a directory in this location the user will need
sudo permissions or to contact a system administrator.
How to set permissions when creating a directory ¶
To set permissions when creating a directory pass the
-m option. This accepts
a number value to set the file mode. If no options are passed to
directory will be created with read, write and execute permissions for the user
(755). In the following example the directory is created to be world readable.
mkdir -m 777 foo ls -la total 12 drwxr-xr-x 3 george users 4096 Sep 9 20:59 . drwxr-xr-x 8 george users 4096 Sep 9 20:47 .. drwxrwxrwx 2 george users 4096 Sep 9 20:59 foo
Further reading ¶
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