For an SSL encrypted web server you will need a few things. Depending on your install you may or may not have OpenSSL and mod_ssl, Apache’s interface to OpenSSL.
Use yum to get them if you need them.
yum install mod_ssl openssl
Yum will either tell you they are installed or will install them for you.
Using OpenSSL we will generate a self-signed certificate. If you are using this on a production server you will need a key from Trusted Certificate Authority, but if you are just using this on a personal site or for testing purposes a self-signed certificate is fine. To create the key you will need to be root so you can either su to root or use sudo in front of the commands
openssl genrsa -out ca.key 1024 # Generate private key # Generate CSR openssl req -new -key ca.key -out ca.csr # Generate Self Signed Key openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in ca.csr -signkey ca.key -out ca.crt # Move the files to the correct locations mv ca.crt /etc/pki/tls/certs mv ca.key /etc/pki/tls/private/ca.key mv ca.csr /etc/pki/tls/private/ca.csr
Then we need to update the Apache SSL configuration file
vi +/SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf
Change the paths to match where the Key file is stored. If you’ve used the method above it will be
Then set the correct path for the Certificate Key File a few lines below. If you’ve followed the instructions above it is:
Quit and save the file and then restart Apache
All being well you should now be able to connect over https to your server and see a default Centos page. As the certificate is self signed browsers will generally ask you whether you want to accept the certificate. Firefox 3 won’t let you connect at all but you can override this.
Just as you set virtual hosts for http on port 80 so you do for https on port 433. A typical virtual host for a site on port 80 looks like this
<VirtualHost *:80> <Directory /var/www/vhosts/yoursite.com/httpdocs> AllowOverride All </Directory> DocumentRoot /var/www/vhosts/yoursite.com/httpdocs ServerName yoursite.com </VirtualHost>
To add a sister site on port 443 you need to add the following at the top of your file
and then a VirtualHost record something like this:
<VirtualHost *:443> SSLEngine on SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca.crt SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/private/ca.key <Directory /var/www/vhosts/yoursite.com/httpsdocs> AllowOverride All </Directory> DocumentRoot /var/www/vhosts/yoursite.com/httpsdocs ServerName yoursite.com </VirtualHost>
Restart Apache again using
You should now have a site working over https. If you can’t connect you probably need to open the port on your firewall:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT /sbin/service iptables save iptables -L -v
Have an update or suggestion for this article? You can edit it here and send me a pull request.
Listening to BBC Radio with mpv
The BBC publishes high quality 320 kbps HLS AAC streams that can be used to listen to radio from the command-line using mpv. Here are the URLs and some aliases to start listening quickly.
Vim: So long Pathogen, hello native package loading
Vim 8 added a native way to load third-party packages. This means, for me at least, there is no longer any need to use a third party plugin helper like Pathogen.
Linux and Unix more command tutorial with examples
Tutorial on using more, a UNIX and Linux command for viewing the contents of a file or files one screen at a time. Examples of viewing a file, viewing multiple files, searching using regular expressions and opening the file in a text editor.